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Where does your tap water come from?

1. Municipal water source

Municipal drinking water supplies in the United States are among the safest in the world. However, even in the U.S., drinking water sources can become contaminated, causing sickness and disease. Water treatment facilities in many Cities are in desperate need of replacement from old age and wear. Water contamination can occur at almost any point in the delivery channel including lead leaching from corroded pipe solder or bacteria entering the system. Unfortunately most local and state governments do not have the financial resources to address these expensive problems.

Furthermore, most cities also add chemicals like chlorine and fluoride as a disinfectant to their water. Chlorine can react with naturally-occurring organic materials in water. A recent study by U.S. Council on Environmental Quality has established a definite link in the chlorination of water and cancer. One of the studies showed that the cancer risk among people drinking chlorinated water is 93% higher than among those who live where the water is not chlorinated. Joseph M. Price, MD in his book "Coronaries/Cholesterol/Chlorine" wrote that the cause of arteriosclerosis and the resulting heart attacks and strokes, is none other than the chlorine in our drinking water. 

If you are using municipal water as your water source and you are looking to:

  • remove contaminants (chlorine, fluoride, lead, ...) from your drinking water
  • take extra precautions because a household member has a compromised immune system
  • Improve the taste of your drinking water

 We recommend installing a 4- or 5-stage reverse osmosis water system. 

List of Contaminants* removed by 4 to 5-stage reverse osmosis units

  Ions and Metals    

  Arsenic, Antimony, Aluminum, Barium, Berylium, Cadmium, Calcium, Chlorine,
  Chromium, Copper, Fluoride, Iron, Lead, Magnesium, Maganese, Mercury, Nitrate,
  Potassium, Radium, Selinium, Silver, Sodium, Sulfate, Thalium, Zinc 

  Particles   Asbestos, Protozoan cysts, Crytosporidium
  Pesticides   Endrin, Heptachlor, Lindane, Pentachlorophenol
  Radionuclides   Radium, Uranium


*This table is not an exhaustive list of contaminants that RO may remove, but rather lists those contaminants for which RO can be a practical treatment method for treating household drinking water.

 

2. Non-Municipal water source (well, rain, lake, etc)

If you use well water or other non-municipal water, your water source is exposed to many different contaminants, such as animal wastes, pesticides, insecticides, industrial wastes, algae and many other organic materials

Examples of contaminants found in non-municipal water sources:

Coliform bacteria 
This is a group of microorganisms that is normally found in the intestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals and in surface water. The presence of these organisms in drinking water suggests contamination from a surface or shallow subsurface source such as cesspool leakage, barnyard runoff, or other sources. If preventive care is not taken, these bacteria may enter the drinking water supply. Drinking water should be free of coliforms. 

Microbiological contaminants (Cysts and viruses)
Often found in surface water supplies,  Giardia lamblia cysts can cause giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease. Another “bug” getting a lot of attention lately is Cryptosporidium, a single-cell parasite measuring about 2 to 5 microns in diameter. Many surface water supplies contain this pest, which also comes from the intestine of warm-blooded animals. 

To address this type of contamination, we recommend:

  • multi-stage filtration (11-17 stages)
  • adding an ultraviolet (UV) water sterilizer and/or a UF membrane to your reverse osmosis system


How does UV sterilize water?

UV rays penetrate the cells of harmful bacteria and viruses in our drinking water, destroying their ability to reproduce. It is a simple but very effective process, with the system generally destroying 99.99% of harmful microorganisms.

What is Ultra Filtration (UF)?

Ultrafiltration (UF) is a membrane filtration process using hydrostatic pressure to force water through a semi-permeable membrane.The pore size of the ultrafiltration membrane is usually 103 - 106 Daltons. UF is effective for the removal of colloids, proteins, bacteria, viruses, parasites, protozoa and pyrogens (e.g., gram-negative bacterial endotoxins), other organic molecules larger than .02 micron, and most other water contaminants known today.
 

Multi-stage (11-17 stages) reverse osmosis process

  Stage 1 Water travels through a 5 micron solid carbon cartridge for removing volatile organic carbon compounds (VOC's), insecticides, pesticides and industrial solventsand traps particles larger than 5 micron including sediment, silt, sand and dirt. It also helps to extend the life of the system.
  Stage 2 Water passes through a 0.2 micron Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane. Ultrafiltration (UF) is an important purification technology used for the production of high-purity water. UF is effective for the removal of colloids, proteins, bacteria, viruses, parasites, protozoa and pyrogens (e.g., gram-negative bacterial endotoxins), other organic molecules larger than 0.2 micron, and most other water contaminants known today.
  Stage 3 Water flows through pre one - micron filter pads (1 micron equals 1/25,000th of an inch), which remove suspended particles such as silt, sediment, cyst (Giardia, Cryptosporidium), sand, rust, dirt, and other undissolved matter.
  Stage 4 Water passes through granulated activated carbon (GAC). GAC is universally recognized and widely used as an effective adsorbent for a wide variety of organic contaminants, such as chlorine (99.9%), chemicals linked to cancer (THM's, benzene) pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, volatile organic compounds (VOC's),  PCB's, MTBE's and hundreds of other chemical contaminants that may be present in water, bad taste, and odors from your drinking water. 
  Stage 5 Water flows through the ion exchange resin, reducing heavy metals such as lead, copper, aluminum, and water hardness.
  Stage 6
   and 7

Water flows through 2 beds of Redox (Oxidation/reduction process) media made of a special high-purity alloy blend of two dissimilar metals - copper and zinc.  Representing a new and unique way of water processing medium which by its natural process of electrochemical oxidation/reduction and adsorption action reduces and/or removes many unwanted contaminants from water. It is a major advancement in water treatment technology that works on the electro-chemical and spontaneous-oxidation-reduction (Eagle Redox Alloy®) principles. Chlorine is instantaneously and almost inexhaustibly oxidized.

Iron and hydrogen sulfide are oxidized into insoluble matter and attach to the surface of the media. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, copper, nickel, chromium, cadmium, aluminum, and other dissolved metals are removed from the water by the natural process of electrochemical process. They are attracted to the surface of the media, much like a magnet. The media inhibits bacterial growth throughout the entire unit.

  Stage 8 Water flows through another one-micron filtration pad for further reduction of undesirable particles. The end result is a great reduction or elimination of a wide variety of contaminants.
  Stage 9 Water passes through a CRYSTAL QUEST® reverse osmosis membrane, which removes and filters particles as small as 1/10,000 of a micron as most inorganic chemicals (such as salts, metals, minerals) most microorganisms including cryptosporidium and giardia, and most inorganic contaminants.
  Stage 10
  and 15
Water flows through another one - micron filter pads (1 micron equals 1/25,000th of an inch), which remove suspended particles such as silt, sediment, cyst (Giardia, Cryptosporidium), sand, rust, dirt, and other undissolved matter.
  Stage 14 Water passes through granulated activated carbon (GAC).
  Stage 11
  and 12
Water flows through another bed of media made of a special high-purity alloy blend of two dissimilar metals - copper and zinc. it is a major advancement in water treatment technology that works on the electro-chemical and spontaneous-oxidation-reduction (Eagle Redox Alloy®) principles. Chlorine is instantaneously and almost inexhaustibly oxidized.
  Stage 13  Water flows through another ion exchange resin, reducing heavy metals such as lead, copper, aluminum, and water hardness.
  Stage 16 Water passes through an Ultraviolet Water Sterilizer System manufactured with axial flow reactors in 304 stainless steel. The hard glass germicidal lamps provide an economical way of treating water requiring a 99.99% reduction of bacteria and virus and protozoa. This process is accomplished without adding any harmful chemicals to your drinking water. CRYSTAL QUEST® Ultraviolet Water Sterilizer System is the most ecological way of treating your water.
  Stage 17

Water travels through a 0.2 micron Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane. Ultrafiltration. UF is effective for the removal of colloids, proteins, bacteria, viruses, parasites, protozoa and pyrogens (e.g., gram-negative bacterial endotoxins), other organic molecules larger than .02 micron, and most other water contaminants known today.


If you suspect a contamination problem in your tap water but don't know how to identify it, it is a good idea to have your water tested. Having your water analyzed is the first step in identifying the problem and determining a solution and/or treatment method, especially if your water is from a private (non-municipal) water source.

Send us your water test results or fill out this Quick Quote Form and email it back to sales@reverseosmosispros.com. We will make you an offer based on your current water condition.

Questions?  Call us at 1(866)855-0671